Lancet review: Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Two articles in the Lancet provide a review on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis).
The first article looks at the cause and immunology behind IBD and includes a discussion around how environmental factors (e.g. cigarette smoking, sanitation), infectious microbes, ethnic origin, genetic susceptibility, and a dysregulated immune system can lead to mucosal inflammation.
The authors of the second article critically review the evidence for established treatments (5-aminosalicylic acid compounds, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, calcineurin inhibitors) and emerging new therapies - including biological therapies directed at cytokines (e.g., infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol) and receptors involved in T-cell activation (e.g., visilizumab, abatacept), amongst other agents (such as natalizumab, MLN-02, alicaforsen, interleukin 10, antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics). The second article is set out under the following headings: